- Defective vehicles
- Driver error or Inappropriate driving leading to traffic accident being potential or otherwise.
- Impaired driver performance – Fatigue / micro sleep leading to traffic accident.
- Coach access steps (Risk of falling while boarding or alighting the vehicle)
- Other vehicles – motor vehicles and cycles. (Risk of being struck by vehicles, cycles etc while alighting from coach)
- Vehicle door opening onto ‘wrong side’ of the road (e.g Europe)
- Impaired driver performance – Distraction leading to traffic accident.
- Impaired driver performance – due to stress.
- Travel sickness – Body fluids (Risk of contamination and subsequent illness following direct contact with bodily fluids)
- Injury whilst vehicle is in motion due to persons falling and collisions.
- Luggage falling from overhead luggage racks
- Misbehaviour – Injury to self, others inside coach, or passers-by.
- In event of breakdown or accident, additional collision with vehicle, or with passengers during evacuation.
- Stopping-off points / breaks in the journey Individuals separated or lost.
- Confrontation with a member of public.